New research says invasive radiata pine is spread more widely across NZ than was previously appreciated, with modelling showing that up to 76% of the country’s land is climatically capable of supporting populations of the trees. The authors say their findings demonstrate “pervasive and ongoing invasion of radiata pine outside plantations”, with more work needed to manage current invasions and prevent future ones. They recommend a levy on new non-native conifer plantations to offset costs of managing invasions, and stricter regulations to protect vulnerable ecosystems. Dr Cate Macinnis-Ng, Associate Professor and Rutherford Discovery Fellow, University of Auckland; and Principal Investigator and Theme Co-Leader, Te Pūnaha Matatini, comments: Radiata pine invasions have a significant impact on natural ecosystems in Aotearoa. They change the biodiversity and ecosystem services of invaded areas. This research has looked at currently invaded sites and uses projections of climate change to determine areas that may be invaded under future climates.