Who is Canada’s largest greenhouse gas emitter and air polluter? …Far and away Canada’s largest net source of GHG emissions this year is forest fires. Natural Resources Canada estimates a release of 1,400 million tonnes (Mt) of CO2 already and the fire season is nowhere near its conclusion. …To improve the health of its forests and reduce GHG emissions, Canada must implement Climate-Smart Forestry. This means making forest management, forest operations, and forest-products decisions that value carbon. Climate-Smart Forestry takes into consideration not only the carbon impacts of our actions, but also the counterfactual of inaction. For example, elimination of timber harvest would result in increased use of high-carbon alternatives, such as cement and steel in building construction or plastic in furniture and consumer products. This is the product counterfactual. The demand for materials is still there and eliminating the lowest carbon source of supply – wood – makes no sense.