There is a growing conversation regarding closed-loop pulp mill treatment systems and specifically, why did consultants hired by the province and Northern Pulp not design a zero-effluent solution. As confirmed by expert consultants, a zero-effluent bleached kraft mill does not exist at this time. Therefore, it cannot be argued that it is a question of “spend the extra money” to design a closed-loop system for Northern Pulp. The technology is simply not available for Northern Pulp’s process. …It is important to recognize that the effluent quality of today is not the quality of decades past — specifically pre-1990s — as significant improvements have been made over the years. …The proposed new treatment system for Northern Pulp will be a modern AST system that mills and other facilities (industrial, municipal, etc.) throughout the world have in place.